The DIA Documents – USSR, July 1972
Defense Intelligence Agency document: Controlled Offensive Behaviour – USSR, July 1972
(U) Controlled offensive behavior as defined within the scope of this report includes Soviet research on human vulnerability as it applies to methods of influencing or altering human behavior. There is an ever increasing amount of information emanating from the USSR (samizdat or underground press) that suggests that certain authoritarian institutions in the USSR are engaged in the practice of “mental reorientation” of numerous individuals who are classed as political dissenters. The “mental reorientation” is being accomplished through various means including confinement, isolation and psychopharmaceutical administration. This treatment of so-called insane individuals is causing alarm among an international cross section of psychiatrists. The literature contains sufficient data on human mental manipulation and, therefore, warrants surveillance by interested parties. It appears that the USSR stresses physical and medical “treatment” of its political detainees under the guise of psychiatric-care rehabilitation.
(U) The Soviet Union is well aware of the benefits and applications of parapsychology research. The term parapsychology denotes a multi-disciplinary field consisting of the sciences of bionics, biophysics, psychophysics, psychology, physiology and neuropsychiatry. Many scientists, US and Soviet, feel that parapsychology can be harnessed to create conditions where one can alter or manipulate the minds of others. The major impetus behind the Soviet drive to harness the possible capabilities of telepathic communication, telekinetics, and bionics are said to come from the Soviet military and the KGB. Today, it is reported that the USSR has twenty or more centers for the study of parapsychological phenomena, with an annual budget estimated at 21 million dollars. Parapsychological research in the USSR began in the 1920s and has continued to the present. Based on their “head start” and financial support, it could be concluded that Soviet knowledge in this field is superior to that of the US
(U) Methods for controlling behavior of the human being are numerous. Not all of the possibilities were included in this report, but an attempt was made to elaborate on those areas where there is intensive research by the USSR. The use of sound, light and color, or odors has been determined to be possible means for the Soviet exploitation in order to alter human behavior. In the area of color and lights, usually in a flickering mode, there have been reports of actual “trials” by the Soviets (Air force and Navy) on US or allied personnel. The Soviets have shown an in-depth knowledge in the effects of sound and light on biological systems. It appears that with their
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knowledge, it would be a rather simple procedure to make the transformation (from scientific research to the applications phase). The area of pheromone research has interested the Soviets; however, their data is sketchy and it is conceivable that they are not yet aware of the tremendous potentials that these substances provide for causing human behavioral changes. It is also a possibility that the USSR has realized the military benefits and are not publishing or conversing about their research and development efforts concerning pheromone synthesis and uses.
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INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN BEHAVIOR MANIPULATION
SECTION I – BACKGROUND
1. (U) Methods for manipulating or influencing the human mind exist and are being thoroughly researched by members of the Soviet scientific community. For background and introductory information it would be best if some of these methods were briefly mentioned. Techniques, studied by the Soviets include biochemicals, sound, light, color, odor, sensory deprivation, sleep, electronic and magnetic fields, hypnosis, autosuggestion, and paranormal phenomena (psychokinesis, extrasensory perception, astral projection, dream state, clairvoyance, and precognition. Paranormal phenomena have caused great excitement in recent years in the Soviet Union; so much so, that it has been reported (1) that the Soviet has 20 or more centers in 1967 for the study of this area. It was also reported that the annual budget for 1967 for paranormal research was approximately $20 million.
2. (U) The purpose of mind altering techniques is to create one or more several different possible states in the conscious or unconscious area of the brain. The ultimate goal of controlled offensive behavior might well be the total submission of one’s will to some outside force. It is more realistic to assume that lesser degrees of mental aberration would be the purpose of Soviet research in this field. Some areas of human mind manipulation that apply to this report are morale lowering, confusion, anxiety, loss of confidence, loss of self-reliance, fatigue, persuasion, disruption of social cohesion, or complete incapacitation. Since the desired end product of this type of research is some change in the human mind, only the non-lethal aspects are discussed in this report. It should be remembered, however, that some techniques have lethal thresholds.
3. (U) The purpose of this study is to portray the Soviet research in mind manipulation and its possible use on US or allied individuals (e.g. PW’s) or troops. Controlled offensive behavior, however, has other connotations. Certain methods of altering mental or physical states of man may have application on one’s own individuals. The apport technique and astral projection are examples which will be discussed in this report. These two methods allow the enemy to impart certain behavioral characteristics on its own people to the detriment of US or allied personnel or missions.
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PARAPSYCHOLOGY IN THE SOVIET UNION
SECTION I – BACKGROUND
1. (U) The science of parapsychology includes special sensory biophysical activities, brain and mind control, telepathic communications or bioinformation transceiving, bioluminescent and bioenergetic emissions, and the effects of altered status of consciousness on the human psyche. The Soviets prefer the term biocommunications instead of the term parapsychology. Other terms that may appear in the Soviet literature that normally mean parapsychology are: psycho-physiology, psychotronics, psychoenergetics, or biophysical effects. The term parapsychology (biocommunications) as used in this report denotes a multi-disciplinary field consisting of the sciences of bionics, biophysics, psychophysics, psychology, physiology, and neuropsychiatry (57,58).
2. (U) The bread area of biocommunications can be further subdivided into two general classifications: Bioinformation and Bioenergetics. Bioinformation includes paranormal events between living organisms (telepathy, precognition) and events between living organisms and the inorganic world. Bioenergetics denotes those activities such as biological location and indicator techniques, bioenergetic therapy using electromagnetic fields, and psychokinesis, or the influence of mind upon matter. The definitions of the terms Biocommunications, Bioinformation, and Bioenergetics are given in Table III which appeared in the Mankind Unlimited Research report. The basic definitions are based on the information provided by Ryzl (59). It should be mentioned that parapsychology was accepted in 1969 as a legitimate field of science and scientific research by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).
BASIC TYPES OF BIOCOMMUNICATION PHENOMENA (U)
A new branch of science involved with the human capability of obtaining information from other than the normal senses and the ability to respond to or reasonably interpret such information. Biocommunications, also synonymous with parapsychology, is, however, distinct from other sciences in that it is primarily concerned with researching the existence of a definite group of natural phenomena controlled by laws which are based on any known energetic influence.
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TABLE III (Cont)
TYPE I: BIOINFORMATION (U)
Those phenomena associated with the obtaining of information through means other than the normal sensory channels e.g. through extrasensory perception (ESP). There are several forms of ESP, including:
- Telepathy, transmission or “reading” of thoughts refers to the extrasensory reception of information about the mental processes of others.
- Proscopy or precognition – While the above forms appear to differ only in the nature of the object about which information is received, numerous observations indicate that precognitive ESP involves, under certain circumstances, trespassing the barrier of time to obtain information about future events.
- Paragnosia or clairvoyance refers to the extrasensory reception of information about objective events in the outer world.
TYPE II: BIOENERGETICS (U)
Those phenomena associated with the production of objectively detectable effects through means other than the known energetic influences. Seemingly incredible effects have been reported, such as the movement of distant objects without any detectable use of physical force (telekinesis), antigravitational effects, transformations of energy, electromagnetic effects arising without adequate physical cause, and chemical reactions and biological processes occurring through mental concentration.
3. (U) Scientists in pre-revolutionary Russia were studying the area of parapsychology as did later such Soviet scientists as V.M. Bekhterev, A.G. Ivanov-Smolensky and B.B. Kazhinsky in the twenties and thirties (60, 61). In 1922, a commission composed of psychologists, medical hypnotists, physiologists, and physicists worked in parapsychology problems at the Institute for Brain Research in Petrograd (Leningrad). Work flourished throughout the thirties with research being reported
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in the literature in 1934, 1936, and 1937 (62). After 1937 further experiments in the field of parapsychology were forbidden. During Stalin’s time, any attempt to study paranormal phenomena might have been interpreted as a deliberate attempt to undermine the doctrines of materialism.
4. (U) According to Dodge (63) in 1964, the Aerospace Technology Division of the Library of Congress reviewed the Soviet literature in an unpublished bibliography entitled, “Soviet Parapsychology” (ATD Report U-64-77). At that time, academic opposition to parapsychology in the USSR had reached its zenith which led ATD observers to the reasonable conclusion that official Soviet support or funds for parapsychological research were unlikely and that investigation in this area might be terminated.
5. (U) The above conclusion was apparently misguided because of events that occurred in 1959 and 1960. In 1959 a book entitled Mysterious Phenomena of the Human Psyche was published in the USSR. Its author was Professor L. L. Vasilev, head of the Department of Physiology of Leningrad University and a corresponding member of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR (64). A year later, Professor Vasilev was given state funds to establish at the university appropriately equipped laboratories for the study of telepathy. The published findings from this laboratory attracted attention and began to find repercussions in the columns of the non-specialized periodical press (65-70). This was followed by a publication in 1962 by Kazhinskiy (71). Following the example of Leningrad, other cities, including Moscow, Kiev, Novosibirsk, and Kharkov, established similar laboratories and research centers, at which not only the phenomena described in world literature were examined, but a study was made of parapsychic features displayed by Soviet citizens. The journal Science and Religion (72) has published many articles on Soviet parapsychology, including a discussion of whether it was worth-while continuing research in this field (1965). Affirmative, though extremely cautious, replies to this question were given by Vice President of the Academy of Sciences, N.N. Seminov, by Academicians M.A. Leontovich, A.L. Mints and G.M. Frank, and by Professors A.N. Leontev and V.F. Asmus (73). This brief survey brings the study of paranormal phenomena up to the time when studies of a more pertinent nature to this report have begun.
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SECTION II – SIGNIFICANCE OF PARAPSYCHOLOGY IN THE USSR
1. (U) The Soviet Union is well aware of the benefits and applications of parapsychology research. In 1963, a Kremlin edict apparently gave top priority to biological research, which in Russia includes parapsychology (74). The major impetus behind the Soviet drive to harness the possible capabilities of telepathic communication, telekinetics, and bionics is said to come from the Soviet military and the KGB (57). Today it is reported that the USSR has twenty or more centers for the study of parapsychological phenomena, with an annual budget estimated in 1967 at over 12 million rubles (13 million dollars) and reported to be as high as 21 million dollars (1, 57, 75).
2. (U) According to a report by Velinov (76), Soviet interest, in biocommunications was clearly indicated in 1965 when the Department of Bioinformation of the Scientific and Technical Society of Radio Engineering and Telecommunications was established at the Popov Institute in Moscow. Its stated objectives are to discuss physical, biological, and philosophical aspects of bioinformation and to acquaint the Soviet scientific community with biocommunications research conducted outside the Soviet Union.
3. (U) Soviet parapsychology research was actually stimulated by the 1960 French story (77) concerning the US atomic submarine Nautilus. The French journalists splashed the now rather infamous Nautilus story in headlines “US Navy Uses ESP on Atomic Sub!” Ship to shore telepathy, according to the French, blipped along nicely even when the Nautilus was far under water. “Is telepathy a new secret weapon? Will ESP be a deciding factor in future warfare?” The speculating French sensationalized, “Has the American military learned the secret of mind power?” In Leningrad the Nautilus reports went off like a depth charge in the mind of L.L. Vasilev. In April of 1960, Doctor Vasilev, while addressing a group of top Soviet scientists stated:
“We carried out extensive and until now completely unreported investigations under the Stalin regime. Today the American Navy is testing telepathy on their atomic submarines. Soviet scientists conducted a great many successful telepathy tests over a quarter of a century ago. It’s urgent that we throw off our prejudices. We must again plunge into the exploration of this vital field.” (78)
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Although the US Navy subsequently denied the reports of telepathic testing on atomic submarines, the Soviet hierarchy apparently heeded Doctor Vasilev’s advice and gave support, both moral and financial, to his dynamic view that: “The discovery of the energy underlying telepathic communication will be equivalent to the discovery of atomic energy (62).
4. (U) Since 1962, Doctor Vasilev has headed a special laboratory for biocommunications research at the University of Leningrad. Major aspects of the work of this laboratory are to conduct research and to development machines capable of monitoring, testing and studying telepathic communication (79).
5. (U) In 1963, Doctor Vasilev claimed to have conducted successful long-distance telepathic experiments between Leningrad and Sevastapol, a distance of 1200 miles, with the aid of an ultra-short-wave (UHF) radio transmitter. As a result, Doctor Vasilev was convinced that his experiments, and those he conducted jointly with the Moscow-based Bekhterev Brain Institute, offered scientific proof of telepathic communications. His next goal was to identify the nature of brain energy that produces it (59).
Theorizing of the above experiments, one Soviet scientist suggested that telepathic impulses are radiated along the lines of bits of information in a cybernetic system. Another scientist is known to be working on the idea of time as energy, speculating that the telepathic transmissions may be propagated through a supposed time-energy system, rather than through the electromagnetic field.
6. (U) Soviet research into biocommunications phenomena does not appear to be earth-bound and limited to inner space, but apparently extends to outer space as well. The so-called Father of Soviet Rocketry, K.E. Tsiolkovsky, stated that:
“In the coming era of space flights, telepathic abilities are necessary. While the space rocket must bring men toward knowledge of the grand secrets in the universe, the study of psychic phenomena can lead us toward knowledge of the mysteries of the human mind. It is precisely the solution of this secret which promises the greatest achievements.” (80)
There are reports that the Soviets are training their cosmonauts in telepathy to back-up their electronic equipment while in outer space. One of these back-up schemes is known to involve coded
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telepathic messages. This method was previously demonstrated in March 1967, when a coded telepathic message was flashed from Moscow to Leningrad (81). The involvement of astronauts or cosmonauts in telepathy experiments is not necessarily unprecendented. In February 1971, during the Apollo14 flight to the moon, astronaut Edgar Mitchell made 150 attempts to project his thoughts from inside the space capsule back to an individual on earth. The results of the Apollo 14 experiments have been well-documented in detail and are published in the Journal of Parapsychology (82). Further documentation of Mitchell’s experiments can be found in the University of California Newsletter (83).
7. (U) There are numerous reports on Soviet applications of clairvoyance, hypnotism, dowsing, etc. in military operations. In the case of dowsing, this is also not unprecendented, since US forces have employed dowsing in Vietnam for locating enemy tunnel and caches. With respect to brain and mind control conditioning, a recent report indicates that the Soviet Union has made great strides in emotional training and conditioning. Soldiers are being taught to set their own emotional tone in battle and stress situations. Further, astronauts are being taught through such mental conditioning to distort time and to offset boredom in outer space (84).
8. (U) Man’s sight and hearing are limited to a relatively small range of wavelengths, other living beings often possess much wider perceptive capabilities, both with regard to sharpness of perception and range of stimuli. For example, dogs hear higher sound frequencies than man; bats and dolphins orient themselves by means of an ultra-sound radar; bees perceive colors even in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum; some snakes perceive minute differences in temperature and orient themselves by means of thermoreceptors. Certain living beings even react to stimuli to which man is absolutely insensitive. Some species of fish and homing pigeons, for instance, react to changes of the electric or magnetic field in their surroundings (59). In view of these perceptive processes, it has been difficult to differentiate between those sensory processes which are merely sharpened or highly honed and those that are extra or super-normal. Certain military advantages would come from the application and control of these perceptive processes. For example, such application and control could be used in the detection and identification of animate objects or humans through brainwave interactions, mass hypnosis or mind control through long-distance telepathy, thermal receptors, and sensitivity to changes in magnetic/electrical/gravitational fields.
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9. (U) According to observations made by Doctor Montague Ullman (M.D.) during a trip to the Soviet bloc countries in the fall of 1970, Soviet biocommunications investigations are effectively combining the use of modern and sophisticated technology with basic pragmatic approaches. This was evident, he states, in the ir approach to long-distance telepathy experiments where the results were analyzed in physiological (electroencephalographic data) as well as psychological task performance (transmission of date in Morse Code) (85). Doctor Ullman further observed that the Soviet researchers seemed intent on confirming the existence of a new form of energy, referred to as bioplasma, which they maintain, is characteristic of life processes and represents matter in the form of an integrated system of elementary charged particles. Such energy, through interaction with other systems, is thought to provide the basis for biocommunications (86).
10. (U) The above commentary documents a clear case for research in the Soviet Union in parapsychology. It is significant because of the energy and resources being allotted for this work in the Soviet Union and because of its military implications especially in mind manipulation and controlled offensive behavior. The more sinister aspects of paranormal research appear to be surfacing in the Soviet Union. Why else would Soviet researchers make the statement:
“Tell America that the psychic potential of man must be used for good.”(75)
SECTION III – THE APPORT TECHNIQUE
1. (U) The following discussion on apports and astral projection is not intended to be an endorsement for its scientific verification or even its existence. However, reputable scientists in the USSR and the US are keenly interested in this phenomenon. Areas that appear to have potential must be discussed, even if only briefly.
2. (U) According to Welk (87), a costly weakness in our intelligence system, to a large extent, is an inability to use effectively the resources of the science of the parapsychology (there are some definite indicators that the Soviets realize the potential of “psi” which will be reported later in this section). Whenever parapsychology is mentioned, most people are likely to think of ESP. However, there are other types of parapsychological phenomena which are just as important militarily as ESP. Welk claims, based on many Soviet sources, that the so-called “apport” technique is likely to meet valuable intelligence needs. When
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fully developed, this technique would make possible the abduction of actual objects (including documents) in enemy territory and there transfer to friendly territory. Objects so abducted are known as “apports”. They could be returned to the point of origin without the enemy becoming aware of this temporary abduction.
3. (U) Some of the world’s most eminent scientists from the late 1800’s and early 1900’s have claimed to have witnessed apport phenomena. These include Sir William Crookes (1832-1919), British chemist and physicist, discoverer of the element thallium and former president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (88); Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), British naturalist and co-discoverer, with Charles Darwin, of the theory of evolution (89); Johann K.F. Zoellner (1834-1882), professor of physical astronomy at the University of Leipzig, Germany (90).
4. (U) In the of such an esoteric subject as apports, it is deemed sufficient to relate only one experience claimed to have occurred to Sir William Crookes. The interested reader can consult the non-cited bibliography for further references. The following account is taken from pp. 87 and 88 of reference 88:
“Class IX. The Appearance of Hands, either Self-luminous or Visible by Ordinary Light.”
………….”I (William Crookes) will here give no instances in which the phenomenon has occurred in darkness, but will simply select a few of the numerous instances in which I have seen the hands in the light.
………………………….I have more than once seen, first an object move, then a luminous cloud appear to form about it, and lastly, the cloud condense into shape and become a perfectly formed hand….It is not always a mere form, but sometimes appears perfectly life-like and graceful, the fingers moving and the flesh apparently as human as that of any in the room. At the wrist, or arm, it becomes hazy, and fades off into a luminous cloud. To the touch, the hand sometimes appears icy cold and dead, at other times warm and life-like, grasping my own with the firm pressure of an old friend. I have retained one of these hands in my own, firmly resolved not to let it escape. There was no struggle or effort made to get loose, but it gradually seemed to resolve itself into vapor and faded in that manner from my grasp.”
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5. (U) It is a known fact that the Soviet Union takes the appearance of luminous bodies very seriously as evidenced by the Kirlian photography of the human body’s aura (91). It appears that the Soviets may be considering that a hand which appears out of nowhere and can grasp, “with the firm pressure of an old friend,” another person may have first-rate military possibilities. There has been some discussion recently about the prospects of being able to control the apport technique to a point of sophistication where individuals could control these “luminous clouds”. The individuals who have studied these effects (real or otherwise) have suggested that since these bodies can travel unlimited distances and are able to pass through solid material (walls), they might well be used to produce instant death in military and civilian officials. It is further conjectured that these bodies could disable military equipment or communication nets.
6. (U) If one reads the cases and experiments mentioned here, as well as references two through nine under PART II of the non-cited bibliography, he can make certain deductions. If any of this highly questionable material is true then it can be inferred that organic matter can e transformed into “ectoplasm” that this can be rendered invisible and impalpable and thus converted into something which, for all practical purposes, amounts to force. If organic matter can be converted into such “force-matter,” it seems reasonable to assume that a physical object, if similarly converted, could travel through space.
7. (U) Two things are certain: (1) that parapsychological phenomena are due to the little-known faculties of the subconscious mind; and (2) that the powers of the subconscious mind are vastly superior to those of the normal consciousness. The fantastic memory of the subconscious mind (sometimes referred to as “photographic memory”) is a well-established fact. So is its extraordinary mathematical ability, which has baffled trained mathematicians, no end. It seems probable that some of these little-understood faculties of the subconscious mind have something to do with its ability to put together again an object which it had previously disintegrated, and to manipulate the forces involved in this process. The only way one can learn more about these little-understood processes is through intensive study and experimentation. The stakes seem high enough.
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8. (U) While the process by which matter is converted into “force-matter” (and vice versa) may not be understood, nevertheless, one is faced with the possibility that the human mind can disintegrate and reintegrate organic matter – a feat which seems far more complex than the disintegration and reintegration of say, a stone, a piece of wood, paper, etc. Experiments show that a human body which has lost about half its weight can be reintegrated without loss of normal functions. Since this is possible, it does not seem safe to exclude – without further investigation – the possibility that inorganic matter might undergo a similar disintegration and reintegration. After all, apport phenomena in which physical objects have passed through solid walls have been observed and attested to by some of the world’s most eminent scientists as well as by a host of other responsible witnesses. In view of what the human mind has demonstrated it can do with organic matter, and in view of the very real Soviet threat in this sector, the science of parapsychology should be investigated to its fullest potential, perhaps to the benefit of national defense.
9. (U) According to Pullman (92), Director of the Southeast Hypnosis Research Center in Dallas, Texas, before the end of the 1970s, Soviet diplomats will be able to sit in their foreign embassies and use ESP (in this case a form of the apport technique) to steal the secrets of their enemies. (See also reference 91, p. 216) Pullman states that a spy would be hypnotized, then his invisible “spirit” would be ordered to leave his body, travel across barriers of space and time to a foreign government’s security facility, and there read top-secret documents and relay back their information. Such “astral projection” already has been accomplished in laboratory settings, Pullman said, adding that the Russians are probably now trying to perfect it. Pullman further states that the Soviets are at least 25 years ahead of the US in psychic research. According to Pullman, the Soviets have realized the immense military advantage of the psychic ability known as astral projection (out-of-the-body travel). In this reference, details are given for some of Pullman’s work in the US with astral projection. Other scientists and mediums interested in this work are professor H.A. Cahn of Northern Arizona University (92), Doctor Charles Tart of the University of Southern California (91, 92), and Doctor V. Inyushin of Alma-ata (91). Sybil Leek, noted astrologer and author, states, “there is great danger that within the next ten years the Soviets will be able to steal our top secrets by using out-of-the-body spies.” Further reading, although much older, can be found in a book by Muldoon and Carrington (93). Suggested background reading on astral projection can be found in an excellent article by J. Fraser Nicol in Psychic (94).
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SECTION IV – ESP AND PSYCHOKINESIS
1. (U) The reader by this time has realized that it is very difficult to speak of one area of psychic phenomenon without overlapping into other areas. There really can be no distinct separation, for example, between apports and certain aspects of telepathy; hypnosis also enters into this area. In an attempt to illustrate the various subjects in parapsychology, however, artificial sections were established. This is the reason for a separate part in apports and ESP. Some aspects of the hypnosis, depending on its ultimate use, falls within parapsychology, some areas into medicine; therefore, hypnosis is presented as a separate section outside of this parapsychology discussion.
2. (U) Soviet research in ESP was started in the 1920’s at the Leningrad University by V.M. Bekhterev. In his early work, Bekhterev collaborated with V.L. Durov to investigate the effects of mental suggestion on a group of performing dogs (62). It was believed that telepathic communication depended on electromagnetic radiation. Doctor L.L. Vasilev (95-97), shown in Illustration One, at the Bekhterev Brain Institute set out to identify these electromagnetic waves that carry telepathy. By 1937, Vasilev had amassed evidence that known electromagnetic waves do not carry telepathy. Tests were conducted in electrically shielded chambers and over extreme distances denying the passage of electromagnetic fields (98). Some of the long range telepathy experiments have been published (63, 99, 100) explaining the various techniques employed including classical tests with Zener cards and more unique tests with strobe lights and codes.
Illustration One – Professor L.L. Vasilev, pioneer Soviet parapsychologist considered the father of Soviet psychical research (Not included, bad quality).
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3. (U) Professor L. Vasilev died in late 1965 or early 1966 and the task of continuing telepathy research was taken by Doctor I. Kogan. Doctor Kogan is chairman of the Bio-Information Section of the Popov Radio and Technical Institute in Moscow. This individual is still trying to wed telepathy to the electromagnetic spectrum (101,102). Discussion as to the existence of telepathy has been bandied about the Soviet Union (103) and elsewhere (104) for some time. For the sake of research the Soviet Union accepts the validity of ESP even though the argument as to the mode of transmission continues. Professor E.K. Naumov (105), Chairman of the Division of Technical Parapsychology at the A.S. Popov Institute mentioned above, conducted long range telepathy tests from Moscow to several other cities. Illustration Two is a photograph of Naumov with associates (Photo not included due to poor quality).
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4. (U) In 1967, the Soviet Maritime News reported, “Cosmonauts, when in orbit, seen to be able to communicate telepathically more easily with each other than with people on earth. A psi (short for psychic faculty) training system has been incorporated in the cosmonaut training program,” but the News provided no further details. Some informal reports relayed to Ostrander and Schroeder (106) indicate that the Soviets are working on psi systems for space use, involving not just telepathy, but also precognition.
5. (U) Kogan’s systematic parapsychology research could also be of potential value to the overall Soviet research and development program. Effort to optimize sensory inputs in the interest of controlling the quality of human motor activity is well known, as is the ultimate Soviet goal of achieving a perfect cybernetic man. It is of interest that both conventional psychology and parapsychology programs are headquartered in Moscow, although as depicted in the personnel and institute section the trend is decentralization, is probably no coincidence and supports the view that the latter program should not be taken lightly.
6. (U) As mentioned above, the Soviets seem preoccupied with the search for the energy that carries or facilitates telepathy transmission. Is it electromagnetic or not? The search for this unknown energy has led the Soviets to Kirlian photography; named after its investors Semyon and Valentina Kirlian. The Kirlians developed a technique of photographing with a high frequency electrical field involving a specially constructed high frequency spark generator, turned up and down between 75,000 to 200,000 electrical oscillations per second. Their first photographs showed turquoise and reddish-yellow patterns of flares coming out of specific channels within leaves. A magnified picture of a finger showed craters of light and flares (Illustration Three). By the 1960s research on bioluminescence revealed by Kirlian photography was going on in many Soviet universities. Perfected techniques of photographing the play of high-frequency currents on humans, plants and animals, as well as on inanimate matter have set the Soviets on some striking discoveries about the energetical nature of man. Bioplasma is a term coined by the Soviets for bioluminescent phenomenon or energy. Scientists at th Kazakh State University at Alma-ata have found that illnesses tend to show up in advance as a disordered play of flares from the “bio-plasma” long before they manifest in the physical body. According to Ostrander and Schroeder, the Soviets may be attempting to link Kirlian photography with computers, among other things, to instantly analyze the spectra of colors appearing in the vari-colored flares from the living body.
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Illustration Three – Upper photograph displays flares of energy from fingers of the left and right hand of an individual by Kirlian photography. Lower photograph shows the fingers of three different people and how the aura of “energy” of each remains intact, yet interplays in long thread like fibers in the open area between them.
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7. (U) It is believed that if there is any positive basis for Kirlian photography and the “bio-plasma” body of humans, the Soviets may be closer than is thought on the controlled use of the apport techniques and possible astral projection phenomenon.
8. (U) Doctor A. Podshibyakin, an electrophysiologist at the Institute of Clinical Physiology in Kiev, has found that by charting acupuncture points a correlation exists between the “bio-plasma” and changes on the surface of the sun. At the exact moment solar flares (sun spots) occur, there are changes in the electrical potential of the skin’s acupuncture points. These electrical charges are measured by a tobiscope (probably a simple wheatstone bridge device). In some way, the “bio-plasma” of the body is sensitive to these solar explosions the instant they occur even though it takes about two days for the cosmic particles to reach the earth.
9. (U) The most significant use of Kirlian photography is in the area of psychokinesis or mind over matter (PK). Doctor Genady Sergeyev (75) of the A.A. Uktomskii Military Institute in Leningrad believes Kirlian photography may uncover the mechanism of PK. Sergeyev is a prominent mathematician for the Soviet military who works closely with an electrophysiologist from the University of Leningrad, Doctor L. Pavlova. Sergeyev has devised important mathematical and statistical methods for analyzing the EEG (107) which allowed parapsychologists to follow and depict the actions of telepathy in the brain (108). The type of work reported by Sergeyev in 1967 and 1968 is just now beginning to appear in the US efforts to understand the transmission of telepathy (109, 110). Sergeyev has conducted several years of intensive lab research on the outstanding PK psychic in Leningrad, Nina Kulagina (pseudonym Nelya Mikhailova). Illustration Four is a photograph of Doctor G. Sergeyev and Illustration Five is a photograph of Mrs. Kulagina. Sergeyev registered heightened biological luminescence radiating from Kulagina’s eyes during the apparent movement of objects by PK. Sergeyev postulates that the “bio-plasma” of the human body must interact with the environment to produce PK. Sergeyev emphasizes when target objects are placed in a vacuum, Kulagina is unable to move them. Barcus (111) in the United States reports some unsual occurrences during psychic photography especially of the eyes. Reportedly, Kulagina has caused the movement of a wide range of non-magnetic objects: (under strict scientific control) large crystal bowls, clock pendulums, bread
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matches, etc. In one test, a raw egg was placed in a salt solution inside a sealed aquarium six feet away from her. Researchers report she was able to use PK to separate the yoke from the white of the egg. Observations by Western scientists of Mrs. Kulagina’s PK ability have been reported with verification of her authentic ability (112, 113). These same Western scientists have reported that as of February 1971, they have not been able to visit or observe Mrs. Kulagina. A veil of secrecy has been placed on Sergeyev and Mrs. Kulagina for unknown reasons.
10. (U) Rather than simply observing PK, the Soviets typically turned to instrumentation. Mrs. Kulagina was subjected to a number of physiological electronic measuring devices and tested for important body functions during her PK demonstrations. The Soviets found that at the moment an object begins to move, all of Mrs. Kulagina’s body processes speed up drastically – heart, breathing, brain activity – and the electromagnetic fields around her body all begin to pulse in rhythm. Soviet researchers postulate that it was these rhythmic “vibrations” that cause objects to be attracted or repelled to her. Illustration Six shows a photographic sequence of Kulagina’s PK ability.
11. (U) Scientists report (113) that Kulagina has been able to stop the beating of a frog’s heart in solution and to re-activate it! This is perhaps the most significant PK test done and its military implications in controlled offensive behavior, if true, are extremely important.
12. (U) Space does not permit a discussion on other important parapsychological phenomena such as eyeless sight (75, 114-129), which appeared to be more of a fad than anything else. However since the mid 1960s, the”eyeless sight” fad has subsided and serious research has proceeded quietly at the State Pedagogical Institute in Sverdlovsk, off bounds to foreigners (75). Space in this report does not permit a discussion of psychotronic generators, devices which are reported to be able to store human bio-plasmic forces for later use (75). For further reading on ESP, see the non-cited bibliography; Section V, numbers 12-30.
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Illustration Four – photograph of G.A. Sergeyev, prominent scientist at A.A. Uktomskii Military Institute, Leningrad with an assistant.
Illustration Five – Nina Kulagina, who reportedly moves objects by sheer will (PK).
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Illustration Six – This series of photo shows Nina Kulagina moving a metallic cigar tube by Pk. Scale in background is in centimeters.
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SECTION V – SUMMARY AND MILITARY IMPLICATIONS
1. (U) The following discussion is based on a report by Ostrander and Schroeder (75). The authors ask the question, “Is ESP a weapon of war?” All research on ESP in the USSR is funded by the government. The authors claim that their sources indicate that psi research in nonmilitary areas often have trouble obtaining funds. Doctor Milan Ryzl (131) reports that secret psi research associated with state security and defense is going on in the USSR. Communist state authorities, the military and the KGB display an unusual, disproportionate interest in parapsychology. The Soviets are at attempting to apply ESP to both police and military use (See appendix VI for biographic data on Ryzl). According to Ryzl, some years ago a project begun in the USSR to apply telepathy to indoctrinate and re-educate antisocial elements. It was hoped that suggestion at a distance could induce individuals, without their being aware of it, to adopt the officially desired political and social attitudes. Research in this field of endeavor will hopefully become clearer in the section on hypnosis later in this report. Reports of psi research in Soviet submarines help confirm military involvement in parapsychology. According to Stone (74), there is clandestine psi research going on at the Pavlov Institute of Higher Nervous Activity in Moscow, the Durov Institute, and certain areas in Siberia. Obviously, telepathy and clairvoyance would make ideal additions to a spy arsenal and such undercover groups are constantly said to be supporting ESP research in the USSR. “One conclusion seems justified,” says Doctor Ryzl (130). “Parapsychology in Commnunist countries and especially the USSR occupies a strong position. We can expect it to be developed with determination.” According to Ostrander and Schroeder, the USSR is ahead of the US in certain areas of technical psi research. The authors report that the USSR is ahead of the US in discoveries about the physical essence of the human being and how psi functions in and through us. They are ahead of the US in uncovering the basic energy behind psi. They are ahead of the US in attempts to control factors like the influence of magnetic weather on psi tests. They appear appear to be ahead of the US in seeking out and creating conditions that unlock the psi potential present in every human being.
2. (U) In summary, what is the strategic threat posed by the current “explosion” in Soviet parapsychological research? Soviet efforts in the field of psi research, sooner or later, might enable them to do some of the following:
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- Know the contents of top secret US documents, the movements of our troops and ships and the location and nature of our military installations.
- Mold the thoughts of key US military and civilian leaders, at a distance.
- Cause the instant death of any US official, at a distance.
- Disable, at a distance, US military equipment of all types including space craft.
3. (U) It is generally conceded that the above four areas sound like science fiction, however, the literature appears to support (b) as being the most possible use of psi phenomena during the time frame of this study. Again, from Ostrander and Schoroeder who cite Oliver Caldwell, an expert on Soviet affairs and past-acting commissioner for International Education in HEW, as follows:
“I am amazed at the skepticism and sometimes hostility which I encounter when I try to tell Americans about some of the experimentation which is taking place in the USSR in parapsychology and related fields. I find this strange because there is available documentation in translation which substantiates most of the things I saw in the USSR. I am really disturbed, because if the United States does not make a serious effort to move forward on this new frontier, in another ten years it may be too late.”
4. (U) In closing this section on parapsychology a quote from astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, Jr. is appropriate (131).
“Extrasensory perception is not a matter of belief. There is a great deal of serious scientific work being done in it, and it has been established over the last thirty years that it is a matter of probability, and the probabilities have been established beyond chance. I think it is an important work, I happen to be curious about it, and thus have been pursuing it for many years. This happened to be an opportunity (Apollo 14 lunar mission) to do another little step – a piece in the scientific puzzle of what man’s all about. “
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MENTAL SUGGESTION AND CONTROLLED BEHAVIOR
SECTION I – HYPNOSIS
PART A – The use of Hypnosis in Medicine – USSR
1. (U) In the latter half of the nineteenth century, many French and German researchers began to use hypnosis as a therapeutic aid and to study the way in which it worked. In the Soviet Union, pioneer work in hypnosis was undertaken by V. Danilyevski, A. Tokarski, and V. Bekhterev (see Part II, Section IV).
2. (U) V. Danilyevski discovered that the major characteristics shown by man in a state of hypnosis, such as lower sensitivity, “wax-like” flexibility of muscles and joints, and suppressed movements, were also typical of animals in a similar state. This led him to assert that hypnosis in man was identical in nature to hypnosis in animals. A. Tokarski proved that hypnosis and suggestion, like other psychical phenomena were determined entirely by the influence of the environment on man. He wholeheartedly supported the view that hypnosis was an effective treatment for a wide variety of disorders. V. Bekhterev applied hypnosis widely for treatment. He maintained that verbal suggestion played a big role in developing a state of hypnotic sleep; physical stimuli merely facilitated the achievement of this state. I, Pavlov advanced a scientifically based theory of the nature of hypnosis and its potential use as a method of treatment. In 1935 he described hypnosis as “the standard method in the physiological struggle against the pathogenic agent.” Pavlov’s school gave experimental support to the view that hypnosis was a specific variety of sleep, long before that view had already been advanced in the last century by most doctors and scientists who were concerned with the theory of hypnosis and its application to therapeutic practice. On the basis of experiments on animals and later on humans, the phasic suppression theory developed into a firm physiological foundation for understanding hypnosis and suggestion and the way in which they work. The theory held that hypnotic sleep is a transitional stage between wakefulness and sleep and that there is an active “watch” point in the cerebral cortex of both hemispheres (rapport).
3. (U) The three generally recognized stages of hypnosis are sleepiness, hypotaxia, and somnambulism or respectively, light, medium and deep hypnosis. At the first stage of hypnosis, the
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unconditioned responses in most cases hardly differ from the responses in wakefulness. At the second stage, altered unconditioned vascular responses begin to prevail over normal vascular responses to stimulation, and thus give evidence of hypnotic phases in the cortex of both hemispheres. The suppression process is most obvious with regard to extent and intensity at the third stage, the deep stage of hypnosis known as somnambulism. Since there is no vascular response to most of the unconditioned stimuli, this means that complete suppression prevails. The rare unconditioned vascular reflexes are of small magnitude, are extended in time and are characterized by a prolonged latent period.
4. (U) Soviet psychotherapists believe that hypnosis is one of the leading methods for the treatment of mental disorders. The Soviets concentrate on the “word” as an adequate stimulus for the development of the hypnotic state. The tremendous role played by the emotional message carried by the word should not be overlooked. The psychotherapist will achieve results depending on the emotional content of the entire system of contact with the patient. The greater the emotional content the better the results. Soviets recommend that the psychotherapist takes into account not only the meaning of what he is trying to achieve through suggestion, but also the emotional content of his work, his contact with the patient, his confidence in his own abilities, and the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic treatment in general.
5. (U) The Soviets believe that the hypnotic state offers the researcher the means of penetrating into the physiological fundamentals of human thought and behavior. The Russians conceive of no other state (hypnosis) which would enable the scientist to simplify human thought by splitting it into its component parts thus permitting him to get to the root of this most complex of nature’s phenomena, to control and subordinate it for purposes of research. K. Platonov, the patriarch of Soviet psychotherapists said (132): “I still maintain that hypnotherapy is the main stem of psychotherapy. Hypnotherapy helps us understand better the mechanisms of all other forms of psychotherapy and, therefore, to master them better.”
6. (U) The Soviets stress the use of hypnosis in patients suffering from disorders of the gastrointestinal tract especially if neurotic symptoms accompany such disorders. They further stress the use of hypnotherapy in surgical cases thus providing for a decrease in anesthetic and drug usage. Hypnosis is also being studied for its effectiveness in treating alcohol addiction. At first they approached this problem with the idea of developing an emotionally nagative
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nauseous reflex to the taste and smell of alcoholic drinks; this method was later abandoned for lack of positive results. The method now employed is to instill in the patient the view that excessive drinking will inevitably lead to physical and mental destruction. The Soviets seek to change the patient’s mental outlook on alcohol and to convince them that drinking is impermissible for moral and ethical reasons. In other words, mental manipulation or behavior alteration.
PART B – Hypnosis and Controlled Behavior
1. (U) The possible military uses of hypnotism has many rather bizarre applications. Although there is no concrete proof that hypnosis will play an important role in controlling behavior in military situations, some uses will be mentioned. Biderman and Zimmer (133) discuss hypnosis and other possible alternatives for defense against brainwashing.
2. (U) The following discussion is based on a report by Estabrooks (134). According to the author, the facts and ideas presented are, so to speak, too true to be good, but no psychologist of standing would deny the validity of the basic ideas involved. Of interest to this discussion are some of the more unfamiliar facets of hypnotism which make it of use in warfare. If hypnotism can be used to advantage, we can rest assured that it will be so employed.
3. (U) One in every five adult humans can be placed into the hypnotic state – somnambulism – of which they will have no memory whatsoever when they awaken. From the military viewpoint there are a few facts which are of great interest. Can this prospective subject be hypnotized against his will? Obviously no POW will be cooperative if he knows that the hypnotist is looking for military information, nor will any ordinary citizen if he suspects that the operator will use him to blow up a munitions plant. The answer to this vital question is yes though hypnotists prefer to say “without his consent “instead of against his will.” There are disguised techniques available for hypnotizing an unsuspecting or unwilling subject. The Soviets believe that telepathy may be one such method.
4. (U) Multiple personality can be caused by hypnotism. One could deliberately set up a condition of multiple personality to further the ends of military intelligence and in the development of the “super spy”. In his normal waking state which is called Personality A, or PA, this individual will become a rabid communist.
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He will join the party, follow the party line and make himself as objectionable as possible to the authorities. Note that he will be acting in good faith. He is a communist; or rather his PA is a communist and will behave as such. Then develop Personality B (PB), the secondary personality, the unconscious personality. This personality is rabidly American and anti-communist. It has all the information possessed by the PA, the normal personality, whereas PA does not have this advantage. The proper training of a person for this role would be long and tedious, but once he was trained, one would have a super spy compared to any creation in a mystery story. The super spy plays his role as a communist in his waking state, aggressively, consistently, fearlessly. But his PB is a loyal American, and PB has all the memories of PA. As a loyal American, he will not hesitate to divulge those memories, but be sure he has the opportunity to do so when occasion demands. Here is how this technique would work. Let us choose the Cubans as examples. One could easily secure, say, one hundred excellent hypnotic subjects of Cuban stock, living in the United States, who spoke their language fluently, and then work on these subjects. In hypnotism one would build up their loyalty to our country; but out of hypnotism, in the “waking” or normal state, one would do the opposite, striving to convince them that they had a genuine grievance against this country and encouraging them to engage in fifth column activities. So one builds up a case of dual personality. They would be urged in the waking state to become fifth columnist enemies to the United States, but also point out to them in hypnotism that this was really a pose, that their real loyalty lay with this country, offering them protection and reward for their activities. Through them one would hope to be kept informed of the activities of their “friends”, this information, of course, being obtained in the trance state. They would also be very useful as “plants” in concentration camps or in any other situations where it was suspected their services might be of use to our intelligence department. Once again these people would have a great advantage over ordinary “informers”. Convinced of their own innocence, they would play the fifth column role with the utmost sincerity. The conviction of innocence would probably be their greatest protection. Again, if suspected, no one could obtain from them any useful information. Only a very few key people could throw them into the trance and without this, any attempt to get information would be useless. There are some difficulties that would be encountered in building up an organization of such personnel. Hardly one somnambulist in ten or even a hundred according to Estabrooks would be suitable for such spy work; and the determining of this suitability would be a difficult task. But, Estabrooks reports, it could be done, and once accomplished would repay amply for all the trouble.
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5. (U) The possibility of creating assassins through hypnotic techniques on POWs exists. As was pointed out above, the subject does not need to be willing to enter into such a condition. Once the captive has been placed in a suitable hypnotic state then one needs only to establish the post-hypnotic suggestion or plan for the assassination. After the prisoner is released and returned to his organization, he will carry out his assignment through his unconscious state, while appearing perfectly rehabilitated in his wakeful state. The main problem in the assassin plan is in the area of post-hypnotic reinforcement. There have been some ideas mentioned that suggest one needs to establish the reinforcement pattern during initial hypnosis; some object that will reinforce his goal whenever he looks at it, hears a certain sound, etc. The real problem for the friendly forces is the detection of these mentally altered individuals. At the present time there is no fool proof method of detection. There is no test by which one can discover these agents. Blood pressure, heart rate, electroencephalograph, psychogalvanic reflex, all these devices which one can use to detect the most subtle bodily changes are worthless for there are no bodily changes. Drugs, at least for the present, appear to be of no value. Further, there are certain safeguards that the hypnotic method provides for the enemy. Most important is the conviction of innocence which the man himself has. He would never “act guilty” and if ever accused of seeking information would act quite honestly indignant; the conviction of innocence on the part of the agent is perhaps his greatest safeguard under questioning by our authorities. The Soviets are aware of the above mentioned possibilities and appear to be using certain aspects of psi research in order to manipulate an individual’s mental behavior toward these activities.
PART C – Artificial Reincarnation Through Hypnosis
1. (U) Vladimir L. Raikov, M.D., a Soviet psychiatrist, has claimed that hypnotic phenomenon can be utilized for what he claims to be “artificial reincarnations”. For example, Raikov claims that it is possible to hypnotically suggest to a girl who studies violin that she is the virtuoso violinist Fritz Kreisler. It is interesting to note, says Raikov, that her manner of playing at this time is reminiscent to that of Kreisler. If so desired, it is also possible to create this capacity in an awake state. Raikov has converted persons who have no desire to paint, invent complex machines, or to play music into masters through hypnosis. Raikov reports that he is able to evoke this mental alteration only when the subject is in an exceedingly deep trance which is
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a new form of an active trance. Existence in a state of hypnosis and simultaneous perception of individual moments of reality is usually characteristics of light, superficial hypnosis; however, as mentioned above, Raikov claims that he uses deep hypnosis. As opposed to normal hypnosis, the new found talents of Raikov’s subjects retain in part of their conscious equipment the ability gained by this technique. Raikov explains, “The student is thinkin, forming relationships and judgments, acquiring his own experience during reincarnation. Consequently, the creative potential he develops, draws out, becomes his own”. (75)
2. (U) Raikov has used the EEG to prove his supposition that the trance of reincarnation is a new phenomenon. The usual passive trance of deep hypnosis shows via the EEG alpha rest rhythm. In reincarnation the alpha disappears completely and the EEG shows a pattern like that normally recorded in high wakefulness (135). Reincarnation appears to be the antithesis of sleep.
3. (U) Raikov has worked closely with V. Adamenko, a physicist who reportedly has invented the CAP (Conductivity of the Channels of Acupuncture Points) device. This machine, it is claimed, registers energy flow in the body using as check points for its electrodes the acupuncture points of traditional Chinese medicine. Adamenko reportedly detects changes in body energy caused by alterations of consciousness and varying emotional states. With subjects attached to the CCAP, Raikov put them through various forms of hypnosis. At the end of many sessions the graphs from the CCAP were checked by Raikov and Adamenko. They claimed to have found a pronounced difference between the different forms of hypnosis. They now claim to be able to chart objectively the physical activity of the mind in states of somnambulism and various levels of hypnosis. They report that these states are very hard to measure by any other method. Apparently there is even more activity in the mind during reincarnation than there is when a person is wide awake. This corroborates the EEG findings that reincarnation is a state of “super wakefulness” and that it is a very different animal from regular, passive hypnosis, according to Raikov.
4. (U) Raikov’s methods are thought to have great possibilities for treating ailments such as alcoholism and certain neuroses. His experiments are the subject of afilm “Seven Steps Beyond the Horizon”. (136)
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5. (U) Where the Soviets are going to go with Raikov’s work is open to conjecture. There is some indication that the Soviets believe that Raikov’s work and the CCAP device may unlock many of the mysteries behind ESP and other psi phenomena. If any of the above is true, this work may be a new way of looking inside and catching the subtle interplay between thought and body, psyche and soma. The CCAP device may have a much wider use than charting the mental states of reincarnated artists.
PART D – Telepathic Hypnosis
1. (U) According to Ostrander and Schroeder (75), the ability to put people to sleep and wake them up telepathically from a distance of a few yards to over a thousand miles became the most thoroughly tested and perfected contribution of the Soviets to international parapsychology. It is reported that the ability to control a person’s consciousness with telepathy is being further studied and tested in laboratories in Leningrad and Moscow. The work was started in the early 1920s but was not publicized until the early 1960s. The work was begun by K.O. Kotkov, a psychologist from Kharkov University, in 1924. Kotkov could telepathically obliterate an experimental subject’s consciousness from short distances or from the opposite side of town. The work was documented by Vasilev (62) who conducted research of his own but could not reveal it under Stalin’s regime. The reality of telepathic sleep-wake, backed by columns of data, might be the most astonishing part of Vasilev’s experiments in menatal suggestion. See reference 62, pages 75 through 88.
2. (U) Parapsychologists in Leningrad and Moscow are involved in the telepathic manipulation of consciousness, now recording successes with the EEG. Doctor V. Raikov (see PART C of this section) is involved in the EEG research as well as E. Naumov. Naumov reports that the mental telepathy woke up a hypnotized subject (by telepathy) six of eight times. Naumov remarked that as soon as the telepathic “wake up” is sent, trance becomes less and less deep, full consciousness returning in twenty to thirty seconds (137). In the Leningrad laboratory of Doctor Paul Gulyaiev (Bekhterev Brain Institute), friends of subjects have been trained to put them to sleep telepathically (138).
3. (U) Why are the Soviets again hard at work on the telepathic control of consciousness? Doctor I. Kogan, like Vasilev, is probably doing it for theoretical reasons; still trying mathematically to prove that an electromagnetic carrier of telepathy is possible. Why other scientists may be delving into control
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of consciousness by ESP is another question. During telepathic sleep is an individual simply dreaming his own private dreams or does someone else hold sway? The current Soviets have not divulged the psychological details about their telepathic manipulation of consciousness. Vasilev describes some revelations in his book (62) but little else has been reported. Doctor Stefan Manczarski of Poland predicts that this new field of telepathy will open up new avenues for spreading propaganda. He feels that the electromagnetic theory is valid and believes, therefore, that telepathy can be amplified like radio waves. Telepathy would then become a subtle new modus for the “influencers” of the world (139). Doctor Manczarski’s wave ideas are still very debatable, but what about telepathy someday becoming a tool for influencing people?
4. (U) Hypnotizing someone telepathically probably comes over as a more eerie, mystifying, almost diabolical act in the US than it does in the Soviet Union. The US is really just becoming adjusted to some of the aspects of hypnotism. Since the turn of the century, The Soviets have been exploring and perfecting the various advantages that hypnotism provides. In the Soviet Union, hypnotism is a common tool like X-rays, used in medicine, psychotherapy, physiology psychology, and experimental pedagogy.
5. (U) The Soviets have been reportedly working on the effects of drugs used in combination with psychic tests. Vasilev used mescarine in the early days and more recently M.S. Smirnov, of the Laboratory of Vision, Institute of Problems of Information Transmission of the USSR Academy of Science, has been obtaining psychic success with psilocybin (140).
6. (U) The tests that Vasilev had perfected may have a more interesting future in them that the developer had imagined. Manipulating someone else’s consciousness with telepathy, guiding him in trance….colorful uses are too easy to conjure. The ability to focus a mental whammy on an enemy though hypnotic telepathy has surely occurred to the Soviets. In espionage, one could telepathically hypnotize an individual with the post-hypnotic suggestion to steal classified documents or detonate important military equipment. The mission is accomplished and the individual does not even know that he has done anything. Ryzl (see appendix VI) stated in Psychic (141), “The bulk of recent telepathy research in the USSR is concerned with the transmission of behavior impulses – or research to subliminally control an individual’s conduct.” Visiting Soviet psi labs in 1967, Doctor Ryzl says
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he was told by a Soviet, “When suitable means of propaganda are cleverly used, it is possible to mold any man’s conscience so that in the end he may misuse his abilities while remaining convinced that he is serving an honest purpose.” (140) Ryzl continues, “The USSR has the means to keep the results of such research secret from the rest of the world and, as practical applications of these results become possible, there is no doubt that the Soviet Union will do so.” What will ESP be used for? “To make money, and as a weapon” Ryzl states flatly.
SECTION II – CONDITIONING THROUGH SUGGESTION
PART A – Hypnopedia
1. (U) The subject of hypnopedia or sleep-learning has been openly discussed in the Soviet literature for the past decade (142-161). One of the most thorough Soviet reports has been prepared by Bliznichenko (162) in 1966. Dodge and Lamont (163) have published a report that covers the field of hypnopedia in the Soviet Union through 1968. Further elucidation of this subject in this report, with the exception of a discussion of possible trends in this area since 1969, is believed to be redundant and unnecessary.
3. (U) The last decade of Soviet hypnopedia research has led them into new concepts of memory improvement. It is believed that areas such as subliminal perception and subconscious learning with hypnosis were borne from the basic research involved in hypnopedia training. The most recent indication of new Soviet interest in utilizing the subconscious as a reserve for the retention of facts is a booklet written by L.I. Kuproyanovich (164). This book describes the equipment and technical means used for improving memory as well as the prospective uses of cybernetics for memory retention. One of the more interesting features of this book is a discussion on subliminal acquisition of facts. This is an area of concern when one is speaking of conditioned behavior or mental alteration. It is also an area seldom discussed in open Soviet literature. PART B of this section will briefly discuss some Soviet work in subliminal perception and possible uses for this technique.
3. (U) The following discussion on memory and hypnopedia is based on Kuproyanovich’s report. The author states that the subconscious is one of the unused reserves for the retention of facts. Memory operation on the subconscious level takes place without our realizing
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it, and a man – without noticing it – has better retention or proceeds to a solution of a complex problem even when he does not specifically think of it, such as when he is out for a stroll. And, although information processing on the subconscious level is widely separated from the process that takes place in the conscious state, the transfer from the subconscious to the conscious is carried out instantaneously. This is why a solution or recollection occurs unexpectedly after the memory operates on the subconscious level. There is one other interesting property that is characteristics of the subconscious: the simultaneous processing of several parallel streams of information. This fact is extremely important, because when it occurs, there is a wider circle of associations and analogies that can become the stimuli and sources of new, unexpected recollections and decisions. And, finally, the subconscious operation of memory is more subject to the influence of emotions and feelings. Hypnopedia with automatic tracking (biological feedback as with the use of an electroencephalogram), in which – with the aid of the brains biocurrents – information transmission is carried out at the most favorable moment for retention and the sleep level is regulated by biocurrents, is, in the opinion of the author more promising than the generally accepted methods of sleep learning. Experiments in instructing while in a semisleep state artificially induced in the daytime show good results. These methods have begun to be used both in the USSR and in non-US countries (Bulgaria, for example). Before each training session, a suggestion is received from the tape recorder that puts the student into a semi-sleeping state. After this, as in hypnopedia sessions, the information to be retained is given. The new method is as effective as hypnopedia, insofar as the quantity of information retained is concerned, but has the advantageous difference that it can be used in the daytime.
4. (U) Hypnosis is an effective means for improving perception and retention of information. However, hypnosis can be used only by people with medical training, and under certain conditions. The use of equipment that automatically induces and regulates hypnosis has made the problem of using it somewhat simpler. The most advantageous use of it will be made by an automatic device for hypnosis during the simultaneous instruction of a large number of students in hypnotic training classes specially created for this purpose. Some institutes in Japan and the United States are already instructing students under the hypnosis according to Kuproyanovich.
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5. (U) The important feature of Soviet hypnopedia research is believed to be the conclusions that the Soviets are now arriving at in regards to the manipulation of the subconscious area of the brain. Much of the early work that is described by Dodge and Lamont (163) provide the foundation for a much broader understanding of the various methods available for conditioning the human mind. Hypnopedia research has produced an interest in the Soviet Union for the use of the psychology of memory and the subconscious in order to create conditions and functional states for improving memory operation. The areas that grew out of basic hypnopedic research include hypnosis, autogenic training and sublimal perception. It is believed that these newer areas of endeavor bear more scrutiny than the more mundane area of hypnopedia.
PART B – Subliminal Perception
1. (U) The use of subliminal perception in the advertising industry gained some notoriety in 1958 when an article appeared in the New York Times uncovering the technique developed by the New York firm known as the Subliminal Projection Company, Inc (165). Subliminal perception is a psychological belief that persons can be stimulated below (sub) the threshold (limen) of consciousness. Another interpretation, more commonly used, is that persons can supposedly be stimulated without being aware of it. Hypnopedia, for example, might be considered a form of subliminal perception.
2. (U) In the late 1950s there was much debate as to the moral and ethical use of subliminal advertising. There was in the US a strong moral repugnance to the use of subliminal perception in TV advertising. The furor raised by the public and the press concluded when the Federal Communications Commission entered the picture in 1957. An excellent overview on the subject of subliminal stimulation was prepared by McConnell et al in 1958 (166). The authors attempt to clarify the issues surrounding the application of subliminal perception. The article examines the levels of behavior that may be influenced by subliminal stimulation as well as the ethical questions that naturally arise. The article contains an extensive bibliography.
3. (U) The distinction between subliminal and supraliminal perception cannot always be clearly made. Because of the statistical nature of thresholds, it is possible that many subjects may receive some cues from stimuli even though they are supposedly below threshold. Also, what may for one person, at a particular
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time with a particular stimulus be below threshold may for another person, or the same person in another situation, be above threshold. Insofar as subliminality is crucial for motivational or security reasons, stimuli of such low intensity may be required that little effect could be obtained. As one review of literature in this area concluded: “There does not appear to be substantial evidence for subception (subliminal perception) as a distinct phenomenon.” Another review of literature in this area concluded that most effects that suggest discrimination without awareness can be attributed to imperfections in measurement techniques or other shortcomings of experimental methodology and cannot be clearly demonstrated to be related to perceptual variables. Other research in the communications field suggests that research on reactions to propaganda might more profitably focus upon other factors than upon intensity of stimulation.
There is strong moral repugnance to the use of subliminal perception in propaganda. This was made evident a few years ago when some efforts were made to introduce subliminal stimulation into TV as an advertising technique. Insofar as the US is trying to project abroad an image of itself as a nation encouraging individual freedom, it would seem extremely inappropriate to risk being detected employing propaganda techniques which appear to invade human privacy. It is highly doubtful that the American public would condone such use abroad, just as broadcasters have been reluctant t use this technique for fear of hostile reactions on their audiences. While the risks of national public and international condemnation may be run for worthwhile objectives, if no great advantage accrues the risky approach would be inappropriate.
The possibility of utilizing subliminal perception for military purposes may have been realized by the Soviets. As mentioned earlier, there is a distinct lack of open literature from the USSR dealing with this subject. However, there is mention of it in Kuproyanovich’s recent book. The author states that the showing of movie films and slides, along with being an additional retention source, has yet another important value that aids in revealing the subconscious reserves of memory. Earlier in the author’s text he describes the showing of movies where additional frames, of an advertising nature, were inserted between the film’s basic frames. It was shown that, because of their brief but sufficiently frequent appearance, this technique acted on the subconscious (similar to US work in the 1950s). The Soviet
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technique, when it is necessary to strengthen memory or to create an emotion, utilizes supplemental frames at the rate of one per 25 basic frames. These supplemental frames, according to the Soviets, should contain explanations amplifying the memory of the basic film or creating mood. Thus whether the movie watcher wishes it or not, the information filtering through his subconscious will create an overall background mood supplementing the basic one. According to Kuproyanovich, these films, which enlist both the conscious and subconscious memory functions, are very promising.
6. (U) According to a French expert in the field of electrosleep and electroanesthesia, the Soviets used a motion picture technique to interrogate prisoners (170). The French expert described the method as follows:
“A movie film which shows what you want the individual to do is flashed on a screen at double the normal running speed. A speed of 24 frames per second was considered critical to the success of the method. While the movie is being shown, a 35mm slide projector is used to flash a written statement of what you want the person to do. The slide is interposed between each frame of the movie projection. The net effect of the operation is that neither the movie scene nor the slide can be read, but the subconscious picks up the information. As the individual becomes disoriented, he then responds to questions. Apparently there are no long terms or residual effects as a result of the procedure. It was described as being particularly useful for interrogating hostile prisoners.”
With the above description, Kuproyanovich’s work and the Soviets knowledge in all areas of human behavior, it is not unlikely that they may be in a position to militarily threaten their enemies with sophisticated mind manipulation techniques in controlled situations or in the field.
PART C – Suggestology
1. (U) Suggestology is a new “ology” defined by the communist countries as the scientific study of suggestion. It is reported to be a method of reaching and making use of the the unknown reserves,
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powers, and abilities of the human mind. In some areas it overlaps with parapsychology. One individual responsible for many of the claims for success in the field of suggestology is Doctor George Lozanov, head of the Institute of Suggestology and Parapsychology in Sofia, Bulgaria. Through extensive research he has discovered laws of suggestion which he has applied in many fields from medicine to education. The Bulgarian methods of suggestion are mentioned in this report because some of the theories have been adopted by the Soviets in their work on auto-suggestion.
2. (U) Suggestology is not hypnosis. With this method of conditioning, the individual is always in the waking state. It has been reported that suggestology has been used successfully in medicine especially in functional disorders of the nervous system. The healing is based on the positive suggestion that nothing is wrong; it is a type of mind over body phenomenon. Sanatorium officials in Bulgaria testify that many patients are cured after a few sessions of positive thought patterning (171). Suggestology has been reported to be successful in replacing anesthetics in surgical cases as well as aiding the patient in decreasing his own blood flow. It is further claimed that with suggestology the incisions from surgical operations heal much faster than usual (172). The Bulgarians believe the technique of waking suggestion (not hypnosis) will continue to find a wider and very useful place in the practice of medicine (173).
3. (U) The possibility for upgrading the memorizing process and for accelerating the automation of habits, discovered through suggestological experimentation, offers possibilities for the development of a new science: suggestopedagogy (suggestopedy). The suggestopedic method of mastering a foreign language is not a variety of the current methods (audio-visual, audio-linguistic, conscious-practical, hypnopedic, etc.), but a qualitatively new training process in terms of its content, structure, and results. This method uses suggestion not as a means for some kind of mystical influence, not as some kind of abstract, “vague” factor, but as a specific method for directly influencing the emotional world and intellectual activities, the entire personality, of the student. Practical experience has revealed that a suggestion is not a sort of “third grade, marginal factor.” Controlled and used purposefully, it creates conditions for upgrading considerably the capacity to memorize and to assimilate knowledge faster. In the training process usually suggestive methods are used spontaneously, intuitively.
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Quiet frequently, a number of hindering factors are present in the course of the training process, preventing the spontaneous adoption of the new material, its energizing and retention. The new aspect of the suggestopedic training process is that all means of suggestion – authority, complexity, intonation, music, etc. – have been scientifically selected and organized in a way as to achieve the memorization and creative assimilation of a considerable volume of data without student tension. Creating favorable psychological climate in class, suggestopedy converts the training process into an emotion of joy, into pleasure for the student and the teacher. Under these circumstances the personality of the student is freed from various hindering complexes. It is “liberated” New intellectual and memory reserves are discovered. It is this new psychological system and concept of the training process that is one of the major features of suggestopedia (174).
4. (U) According to Doctor Lozanov, the suggestopedic method allows an individual to learn five to fifty times faster. It is based on the yoga technique of relaxation – “Savasanna”. Using suggestion and autosuggestion, muscle tension is relaxed and the brain is relieved of the usual anxieties and stresses. During suggestopedic sessions the alpha rhythm of rest predominates in the brain. The Soviets were among the first to seize on Bulgaria’s suggestopedia. The Moscow Foreign Language Pedagogical Institute has claimed resounding success with Lozanov’s method (175).
5. (U) The Soviets, although they adopted some of Lozanov’s teaching techniques, have appeared to search for more conclusive results in the use of autosuggestion. Early work was carried out under the direction of Professor A.M. Svyadoshch , of the Karaganda Medical Institute’s Department of Psychiatry. It was reported in 1965 that as a result of a special four month training session, 40 out 50 people learned how to produce, at will a significant change in their own skin temperature. To raise or lower the temperature they simply repeated to themselves for a short period of time the appropriate autosuggestion formula: “hand warm” or hand cold” The Soviets found that the use of autosuggestion during a state of muscular relaxation, known as autogenous training, makes possible a hypnotic state similar to that which is observed during hypnotic sleep. Moreover, a person is able to maintain control over his emotions and carry on further autosuggestion. Using ordinary verbal formulas, one can be subject various organ systems to arbitrary effects during such a state (176). Autogenic training has been reported by the Soviets to be useful in the elimination.
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of pain and in the treatment of neuroses and other functional disturbances (177). Professor Svyadoshch believes that autosuggestion may be used with success in cosmonaut training. In his opinion, autosuggestion can be of great value to those whose occupation makes particularly great demands on self-control, in particular, space crews. Svyadoshch reports that it takes five or six months of special exercises to master the sutosuggestion technique. This makes a person “immune” to fear, worry, and emotional instability (178).
6. (U) The Soviets have shown interest in the ability of humans to alter their psychophysiological state by autogenous and exogenous suggestion. A study was conducted to determine the possibility of changing the activity of individual organs and systems of the human body by autogenous and exogenous suggestion. Six test subjects were exposed to 70-day bed rest. Three of the subjects served as controls, and the other three were trained for the first ten days to arbitrarily strain or relax individual muscular groups, with subsequent sleep. Myotonometric data showed that different muscle tonus indices could be reduced 5-25%. ECG, EEG, myotonometric, and actographic data showed that sleep occurred by the 7 to 15th minute during the second to third weeks of the experiment. By the fourth week the test subjects were able to arbitrarily achieve a state of relaxation and sleep at any time, regardless of the emotional reaction background. At such times arterial pressure and pulse rate were significantly lowered. By the fifth week the test subjects attained similar results, although somewhat less effectively, by self-suggestion. Thus it is possible, by autogenous conditioning, for a subject to attain deep refreshing sleep at a scheduled time even with a background of different stress factors. Most effective changes in the psychophysical state occurred during direct contact of the test subject with the instructor, but exogenous suggestion was performed almost as well by means of a radio or tape-recorder (179.
7. (U) The possibility of being able to predict suggestibility in man prior to engaging him in long term trials has intrigued the Russians. E.F. Mordinov and A.A. Genkin (180) have shown that the electroencephalogram may serve as one of the objective quantitative measures of suggestibility in man in the wakeful state. Thirty-nine subjects in quiet wakefulness were subjected to two EEG parameters: (1) average level of asymmetry of oscillations and (2) average period of activity. Significant differences were reported in the average level of asymmetry of
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oscillations in the readily suggestible group (20 subjects) compared to the resistant group (19 subjects). Suggestibility difference effects existed in the hypnotic state and during wakefulness. The test of suggestibility was the classical one wherein the inability to unlock interlocked fingers of the two hands is suggested.
8. (U) The field of suggestion provides a further means for controlling or altering mental behavior. From the available Soviet literature it cannot be determined t what extent it might be used for changing or manipulating behavior of their enemies. A possible application for US military forces is in the area of establishing defenses against hostile interrogation. The ability to control one’s own emotions through autogenous suggestion might be most useful in PW situations. This, in turn, might provide the US with a clue as to why the Soviets seem so interested in the field of suggestion. On the other hand, the Soviets may have the ability to directly influence the emotional and intellectual activity of a prisoner, without his knowledge, by using Lozanov’s techniques employing subtle conditions of seemingly relaxing and unmolesting environments.
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